Observed versus expected rates of myocarditis after SARS-CoV-2 vaccination: a population-based cohort study
Canadian Medical Association Journal, November 2022
Zaeema Naveed, Julia Li, Michelle Spencer, James Wilton, Monika Naus, Héctor Alexander Velásquez García, Michael Otterstatter, Naveed Zafar Janjua, Naveed, Zaeema, Li, Julia, Spencer, Michelle, Wilton, James, Naus, Monika, García, Héctor Alexander Velásquez, Otterstatter, Michael, Janjua, Naveed Zafar
Postmarketing evaluations have linked myocarditis to SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccines. We sought to estimate the incidence of myocarditis after mRNA vaccination against SARS-CoV-2, and to compare the incidence with expected rates based on historical background rates in British Columbia. We conducted an observational study using population health administrative data from the BC COVID-19 Cohort from Dec. 15, 2020, to Mar. 10, 2022. The primary exposure was any dose of an mRNA vaccine against SARS-CoV-2. The primary outcome was incidence of hospital admission or emergency department visit for myocarditis or myopericarditis within 7 and 21 days postvaccination, calculated as myocarditis rates per 100 000 mRNA vaccine doses, expected rates of myocarditis cases and observedto-expected ratios. We stratified analyses by age, sex, vaccine type and dose number. We observed 99 incident cases of myocarditis within 7 days (0.97 cases per 100 000 vaccine doses; observed v. expected ratio 14.81, 95% confidence interval [CI] 10.83-16.55) and 141 cases within 21 days (1.37 cases per 100 000 vaccine doses; observed v. expected ratio 7.03, 95% CI 5.92-8.29) postvaccination. Cases of myocarditis per 100 000 vaccine doses were higher for people aged 12-17 years (2.64, 95% CI 1.54-4.22) and 18-29 years (2.63, 95% CI 1.94-3.50) than for older age groups, for males compared with females (1.64, 95% CI 1.30-2.04 v. 0.35, 95% CI 0.21-0.55), for those receiving a second dose compared with a third dose (1.90, 95% CI 1.50-2.39 v. 0.76, 95% CI 0.45-1.30) and for those who received the mRNA-1273 (Moderna) vaccine compared with the BNT162b2 (Pfizer-BioNTech) vaccine (1.44, 95% CI 1.06-1.91 v. 0.74, 95% CI 0.56-0.98). The highest observed-to-expected ratio was seen after the second dose among males aged 18-29 years who received the mRNA-1273 vaccine (148.32, 95% CI 95.03-220.69). Although absolute rates of myocarditis were low, vaccine type, age and sex are important factors to consider when strategizing vaccine administration to reduce the risk of postvaccination myocarditis. Our findings support the preferential use of the BNT162b2 vaccine over the mRNA-1273 vaccine for people aged 18-29 years.
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